Article #4


Katz, J. (2014). Implementing the three block model of universal design for learning: Effects on teacher’s self-efficacy, stress, and job satisfaction in inclusive classrooms K-12. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 19(1), 1-20. doi:


The purpose of this study was to examine the experience for teachers implementing the Three Block Model of UDL, specifically its possibility of reducing teacher stress in regards to inclusive education, teacher self-efficacy, and barriers that may affect the likelihood of implementation of the model.


This study involved fifty-eight K-12 teachers from various school divisions in Manitoba. The study used both qualitative and quantitative measures to determine outcomes for teachers regarding job satisfaction, instructional practices, and attitudes towards inclusion and UDL when implementing block two (planning and instruction) of the Three Block Model of UDL.  A quasi-experimental control group pretest-postest design was used. Data was gathered through interviews and surveys, prior to and during implementation of the intervention.


Outcomes for students:

  • Improved self-concept
  • More risk-taking and resiliency
  • More socially engaged
  • More positive interactions
  • Improved school climate
  • Less challenging behaviour
  • Increased student leadership
  • Students with exceptionalities spending more time in class

Outcomes for teachers:

  • Changes in instructional activities to be more inclusive
  • More differentiated instruction
  • More student-led inquiry
  • More open-mindedness to trying new instructional practices
  • Increase confidence and self-efficacy in regards to inclusive education and their
  • ability to meet the needs of all students
  • Reduced workload stress


  • Assessment processes challenging
  • Lack of time for collaborative planning
  • Availability and cost of resources
  • Resistance to change by some colleagues
  • Need for consistent policies at divisional and governmental levels
  • Paper pencil standardized testing
  • Mind shift required



Buy-in by teachers in regards to different programs and models, such as the Three Block Model of UDL will always depend on the implications of implementation. The study shares many positive outcomes for students, which then led to positive outcomes for teachers as well. If the listed challenges can be addressed, the increased self-efficacy and reduced stress load observed throughout the study could encourage teachers to continue working to implement this model, a model that encourages inclusion and social role valorization for all learners. As l look to start implementing this model, beginning with the Respecting Diversity program for my SRV implementation project, it is encouraging to read so many positive outcomes that other teachers have experienced. It is also helpful to learn beforehand what some of the challenges have been.